The Akuapem North Municipal Assembly (ANMA) was first established as a District Assembly by Legislative Instrument 1430 in 1988 under the decentralization system to take control of the day-to-day running of the Municipality. In 2012, it was elevated to the status of a Municipality by LI 2041. The Assembly performs executive, deliberative, and legislative functions in the interest the development of the Municipality.
The vision of the Municipal Assembly is to be among the top ten district Assemblies in the country in the provision of world class Municipal works and services.
The Municipal Assembly exists to improve upon the living conditions of the people through effective and efficient mobilization and utilization of resources with particular reference to community participation.
Based on its vision, mission, Act 462 and LI 2041, the Assembly performs the following functions:
- Give directives, supervises, and provides guidelines to all local administrative authorities in the Municipality.
- Ensure effective mobilization of all available resources for the development of the Municipality through effective planning and budgeting.
- Responsible for the development implementation and management of human settlement and the environment.
- Provide basic services and basic socio-economic and recreational infrastructure facilities.
- In collaboration with National Security agencies responsible for maintenance of security public safety in the Municipality.
- Promote productive activity and remove all barriers to public facility development.
The Municipal Assembly’s Medium Term Development Plan (MMTDP, 2010-2013) was prepared based on the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA I). The programmes and projects implemented during the period under review focused on six (6) thematic areas that pertains to the Municipality out of the seven (7) thematic areas in the National Policy Framework. These six (6) thematic areas were:
- Ensuring and Sustaining Macroeconomic Stability
- Enhanced Competitiveness of Ghana’s Private Sector;
- Accelerated Agricultural Modernization and Sustainable Natural Resources Management;
- Infrastructure and Human Settlement;
- Human Development, Productivity and Employment;
- Transparent and Accountable Governance.
Most of the Assembly’s projects and programmes were concentrated on the above mentioned thematic areas.
Performance of Other Interventions Including Cross-Cutting Issues from 2010 To 2013
The Community Based Rural Development Project (CBRDP), the successor project to the Village Infrastructure Project (VIP) is a major intervention by the Government of Ghana to reduce rural poverty and improve upon income levels of the poor and the quality of life of beneficiaries. The Programme commenced in 2008 and ended in 2011.
A total of nine (9) physical projects were completed under the programmes and these rehabilitation of two (2) feeder roads, construction of three (3) classroom blocks and drilling of four (4) boreholes.
Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) is a major social protection and a poverty reduction intervention being undertaken by the Government of Ghana to achieve universal primary education, promote an increase in domestic food production and consumption andincrease the incomes of poor rural householdsThe basic concept of the Programme is to provide children in public primary schools and kindergartens in the poorest areas of the country with one hot adequately nutritious meal prepared from locally grown foodstuffs on every school going day.
The Programme commenced in the Municipality in 2005 with eleven (11) schools. Currently, the programme has thirty (30) beneficiary schools with a total enrolment of 7110. The programme has created jobs for 12 caterers and 64 cooks.
The Rural Enterprise Programme is an intervention targeted at improving the livelihoods and incomes of rural poor micro and small entrepreneurs. It commenced in the Municipality in 2013 and will end in 2020. It has the objective of increasing the number of rural MSEs that generate profit, growth and employment opportunities. In 2013, a total of one hundred and seventy eight (178) people in MSEs (entrepreneurs and farmers) benefited from the Programme in areas such as: Intermediate training in financial management, General business management, Facilitation of access to Rural Finance for MSEs and Stakeholders fora for MSEs in the Municipality
The Programme first started in the Municipality as National Youth Employment Programme (NYEP) in 2006 until the name was changed to Ghana Youth Employment and Entrepreneurial Agency (GYEEDA) in 2009. The main objective of the programme is to train the youth and provide them with employable skills for the job market. The modules runned under the programme were: Health Extension Workers, Community Education training assistants, Community Police Unit, Internship, Youth in Fire Service, Youth in Prisons Service, Zoomlion Waste and Sanitation Guards, Zoomlion Riders and Zoomlion NAMCOP
An achievement that the programme recorded was the reduction in youth unemployment as most of them are now self-employed, others integrated into government sectors and the rest pursuing further studies in their trained areas.
The Programme is a Government of Ghana intervention intended to make the youths accept farming as commercial and business ventures, generate income to meet farmer’s needs, help check rural-urban migration and to produce enough food crops, fish and meat using modern methods.
The Programme started in the Municipality in 2010 with the youths as the target beneficiaries and it has really been beneficial especially in the creation of employment for the youth, reducing rural urban migration and ensuring food security in the Municipality.
Hunger Project is an international Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) which started operation in the Municipality in 2009. It main objective is to build the capacity of men and women in rural communities to end their own hunger and poverty. During the years 2010 to 2013, the NGO undertook the following projects:
- Construction of 3no. Epic Centres which comprised of the following facilities at Baware, Asenema and Akuni:
- Clinic centre
- Conference hall with 200 pieces of plastic chairs
- G classroom with community library
- Food bank or storage facility
- Community bank with a start fund of US25, 000 dollars which provides credit facilities especially for women.
- Provision of 50% subsidies on farm inputs such as fertilizers, seeds and weedicides to farmers
- Capacity building training for rural communities.
The Girl Power Programme is a five (5) year programme funded by the Dutch Government with the aim of promoting equal rights and opportunities for girls and young women through implementation of programmes such as promotion of primary and post primary education for girls, socio-political and economic empowerment of girls and young women and their protection against violence. The programme commenced in the Municipality in 2011 and it has been undertaken by Child Research and Resource Centre (CRRECENT) a local NGO in 50 communities. The projects implemented so far included:
- Training of head teachers on child rights and the roles of schools and communities in securing the rights of children
- Community sensitization programmes using traditional leaders as advocates
- Formation and training of Community Based Child Protection Teams
- Training of Community Information Centre operators on domestic violence and human rights issues
Location and size
The Akuapem North Municipality is located in south-eastern part of the eastern region and is about 58km from Accra, the capital city of Ghana. It is bounded to the north and north-east by the Yilo-Krobo Municipality, to the north-west by the New Juaben Municipality, south-east by the Shai Osudoku District (in the Greater Accra Region), to the south by the Akuapem South District and to the south-west by Suhum Municipality.
The Municipality covers a total land area of 450 square kilometers representing about two point three percent (2.3%) of the entire land mass of the Eastern Region. It has about 280 settlements with Akropong as its Municipal capital.
The location of the Municipality is very strategic because its proximity to both the national capital and the regional capital, thus, Accra and Koforidua. This closeness allows socio-economic interaction between the Municipal and the two capitals in terms trade, movement of, and access to goods, services and people. This interaction promotes the development of the Municipals’ economy.
Figure 1.1 Map depicting the location of Akuapem North on the Eastern Regional Map.
The topography of the Municipality is largely characterized by one main hill range called the Akuapem Range with heights ranging between 381 metres and 488 metres and its highest peak reaching 500metres and situated at Amanokrom closer to a natural water tank. Its lowest point is approximately, 152 metres. The rivers Brump, Ponpon and Aponapong and their tributaries form the main drainage channels for the Larteh-Mampong geographical area while the Aboabo, Nsaki and Yensi streams drains the North-west segment of the Municipal’s natural landscape.
The nature of the topography somehow negatively affects farming in the sense that sophisticated machines such as farm tractors for ploughing and tilling could not be used on majority of the farm lands except the use of simple farm inputs such as hoes and cutlasses which as a result leads to subsistent farming. Again, the topography makes construction of physical infrastructure very tedious and expensive in terms of cost.
There are two (2) main types of rocks of pre-Cambrian age found in the Municipality. These are the Togo sandy shales series and the Birimian series. The Birimain series are found in Adawso area comprising of benisses and schist with granite and pegmatites, which are metamorphic rocks. The Togo series on the other hand are found in the north-east to the south-west from the Senya-Beraku part of the Akuapem Range, west of Accra.
Rock stones, phythomites and sandy shales are found in the Kwamoso area, Manye-Adamso road near mile 36. The area stretching from the north-west slope of the Akuapem Range to the Nyensi and the Nsaki Valleys are covered by the sand series whiles phylites are found in stream valleys notably the Bump Valleys near Larteh. Quarzites also cover greater part of the Akuapem Range, Mampong, Tutu, Amanokrom and Larteh among others.
The nature of the soil supports farming activities and the presence of these rocks also allows for stone quarry activities which are economic activities and major source of income to the people in the Municipality.
The Municipality experiences tropical rainfall. Thus, it has bi-modal rainfall pattern and wet semi-equatorial climate. The mean annual rainfall is 1270milimetres which is ideal for major and minor seasons farming. The rainy season is usually from April to July (major rainy season) and from September to November (minor rainy season).
Temperatures range between 20°C in August and 32°C in March averaging approximately 23.88°C. Although there is a minor dry season in August, the main dry season does occur from December to February each year.
Relative humidity is fairly moderate but quite high during rainy seasons and early mornings. The fair distribution of temperature and rainfall patterns enhances the cultivation of many food and cash crops throughout the Municipality.
The Municipality lies within the semi-deciduous forest zone. Most of the trees shed their leaves during the dry season. The Municipality has broken forest on most hill tops, secondary forest on slopes and valleys, shrubs and bushes along the motor roads and main footpaths, thickets on the slopes facing the Accra Plain and forest reserves.
There are two major forest reserves, forest patches and sacred groves scattered all over the Municipality. Notable ones can be found in towns such as Mampong, Gyafiase, Larteh Junction, Bankana near Tutu, Akropong, Obosomase, and Saforo. However, bad farming practices and other activities such as real estate development and illegal chain saw operations have resulted in the natural vegetation cover being degraded.
The entire Akuapem State has one paramount chief notably referred to as the Okuapemhene with the seat of the paramount established and managed at Akropong the Municipal capital. In terms of traditional administration governance, the Akuapem state has five (5) important and well established divisions namely the Kronti division (Akropong), Adonten division (Aburi), Gyase division (Amanokrom), Nifa division (Adukrom) and Benkum division (Larteh).
These divisions have operated effectively and harmoniously until 1994 when unfortunately as a result of a meeting held at Larteh which gave rise to the Larteh Accord, three of the divisions, namely Nifa, Benkum and Adonten decided to renounce their allegiance to the Ofori Kuma Stool and have petitioned the National House of Chiefs for autonomous paramouncies. This brought major challenges in term of development but through countless efforts the Akuapem State had been unified again in the last quarter of the year 2013.
There are three languages that are mainly spoken in the Municipality. These are Twi, Kyerepong and Guan. Akuapem Twi speaking people are the largest ethnic group in the Municipality, representing 51.6% of the population, followed by Kyerepong and Guan which constitute 42.3% whiles only 6.1% constitutes Ewes, Northerners, Krobos and other ethnic groups. The twi language is the most effective medium of mass communication and development information dissemination.
The communal spirit of the people depends on one’s location. People living in the urban areas find it difficult to respond to calls for community mobilization or participate in communal labour. However, for those in the rural communities they respond on the average to calls from their chiefs, elders and Assembly members to participate in communal labour.
Christianity is the predominant religion in the Municipality this can be attributed to presence of many churches in the Municipality and also the missionaries who first settled in the Municipality Christians alone constitute 89% of the population, followed by Islam which constitutes only 2.2%, 1.9% constituting traditionalist and 1% representing other religions. However, the remaining 5.9% of the population do not belong to any religion.
There are two (2) major traditional festivals that are celebrated annually in the Municipality namely Odwira and Ohum. The Akuapem Odwira festival was initiated by the 19thOkuapemhene of Akropong, Nana Addo Dankwa I (1811-1835) and was first celebrated in October 1826. Its significance is to celebrate their victory over the invincible Ashanti army during the historic battle of Katamansu near Dodowa in 1826 and also to cleanse them and also ask for protection from the gods.
These festivals serve as important occasions and events for mobilization of human and non-human resources for community development and social transformation which also informs the plan preparation, implementation and development administration in the Akuapem North Municipality.
The settlement pattern of the Municipality could be described as a linear type of settlement because most of the settlements are along a road transport network.
The Municipality has a total of about two hundred and eighty (280) settlements and has fifteen (15) Town and Area Councils evenly distributed across the Municipality to serve as service centres to these settlements or communities.
These service centres are Akropong, Adukrom, Obosomase, Mamfe, Larteh, Aseseeso, Apirede, Adawso, Mangoase, Okorase, Onyamebekyere, Okrakwadwo, Asenema, Mampong and Abiriw.
The table provides the population of the top twenty settlements in the Municipality. This is based on the population size, the number and level of services they have.
Table1.3: Population of Top Twenty Settlements
Source: GSS, Akuapem North Municipal Assembly, Dec., 2013
An important issue in dealing with spatial organization is the distribution of services. The fifteen service centres render services such as education, health, banking, telecommunication, postal, security, market, and agriculture extension services
The maps below show how this services and basic infrastructure have been distributed within the Municipality.
The maps showing surface accessibility of services in the Municipality (see appendix).
The local economy of Akuapem North Municipality is made up of Agriculture, Industry/manufacturing and Commerce/Services. About 37.4% of the economically active population, (thus 15 years and older) are employed or engaged in agricultural activities, 46.7 are employed in the commerce or service sector whiles the remaining 15.9 are employed in the manufacturing sectors. The commerce/service sector is mostly dominated by women and it is not surprising because the women’s population in the Municipality is more than the men.
Agriculture activities in the Municipality seem to be dwindling. The sector previously used to be the main backbone of the Municipality thus employing about 60% of the population but now, only 37.4% of the economically active population is engaged in this sector. This reduction can be attributed to the challenges such as loss of agriculture lands to real estate or constructions, inadequate agriculture extension services, erratic rainfalls, inadequate credit facilities to farmers, inadequate storage facilities, high prices of farm inputs and post-harvest losses in the farms making the sector less lucrative.
The agricultural system practiced in the Municipality is largely the subsistence system of farming with just a few engaged in large scale farming for commercial purposes. Activities within this sector include crops farming, livestock rearing, tree planting and fishing farming.
Out of a total of 33,322 households in the Municipality, 15,703 representing 47.1% are engaged in agricultural activities. Deducing from the 15,703 agriculture house households, the most predominant type of Agricultural activity is crop farming 93.5%, followed by livestock rearing 34.6%, then tree planting 1.7% and fish farming 0.1%.
Crop farming is mainly done in the rural areas of the Municipality. The main types of crops cultivated are cassava, plantain, cocoyam, maize, cabbage, palm nuts, cocoa, and oranges. Cassava is the most predominant crop cultivated in the Municipality, then followed by palm fruits/nuts and it is mostly cultivated in areas such as Kwamoso, Korkorm, Asenema and Ankoani, Tadankro respectively. Mangoase, Aseseeso and Nsutam are also areas noted for the cultivation of vegetables such as cabbages, pepper, okra, tomatoes and garden eggs. Fruits such as oranges, pineapples, and pawpaw are also cultivated in the Municipality.
Livestock commonly reared in the Municipality are poultry birds and ruminants. There are three systems used in keeping livestock in the Municipality. These are intensive, semi-intensive and free range. The table below presents the distribution of livestock and livestock farmers.
|Table 1.4: Distribution of livestock and keepers|
|Number of Animals||Number of keepers||Average Animal per Keeper|
|Source: Ghana Statistical Service, population and housing census|
The areas of livestock farming in the Municipality are Tutu, Obosomase, Aseseeso and Mampong. The only challenge faced in this sub-sector is the non-formation of associations and groups which would have made it more productive, vibrant and strong.
Fish farming is the least farming activity in the Municipality. It has only 13 agricultural households engaged in it. Thus seven (7) households in the urban areas and 6 in the rural areas.
Out of a total of 33,322 households in the Municipality, about 1.7 percent is engaged in tree planting or tree growing.
There is about 15.9% of the economically active population engaged in manufacturing/industrial activities. Among the major manufacturing/industrial activities include manufacturing of simple machinery, agro-processing, construction, quarrying and woodwork industries (carpentry). The 2010 PHC revealed that out of the economically active population of 52,480, 117 were engaged in quarrying (0.2%), 6,298 engaged in manufacturing (12.0%) and 1,924 engaged in construction (3.7%).
Stone quarrying and sand winning activities are carried out in especially in the rural areas of the Municipality, notable among them are stone quarry at Asamang, along the Larteh road and Aseseeso, sand winning at Adawso, Mangoase, Otareso, Tinkong, Okorase and Yensiso. Apart from the Asamang Quarry which pays business operating permit fee to the Assembly, all the others are illegal. These activities, though generates some incomes for the local people it also turns to degrade the land and pollute the environment.
By virtue of the Municipality’s location, thus its proximity to the national and regional capitals covers a wide range of tertiary activities. These include banking, tuition, telecommunication, hairdressing, driving, tailoring and dressmaking among others. Most of these activities are carried out usually on a small scale. The service sector is most specifically the private in-formal type which is growing at a faster rate and employs more people especially women.
The income per month gives an understanding of the purchasing power of the people and their ability to satisfy their basic needs. The average household income for the people of the Municipality is GH?4.00 per month. On the other hand, household expenditure distribution shows how expenditures of households in the Municipality are distributed. Thus the amount spent on items per month. Households in the Municipality spend more of their income on food than any other item. The least item income is spent on is shelter and that is because most houses are inhabited by the owners themselves and therefore do not pay rent.
The revenue base of the Municipal Assembly can be categorized into three major components. These are the Internally Generated Funds (IGF), Grants and Donor Funds. The IGF component comprised of rates, property income (lands), fees and fines, licenses, rent, investment income and other miscellaneous which are generated within the Municipality. The grants and donor funds are those gotten from outside the Municipality. Thus funds received from the Central Government and other donor agencies. These revenue bases help the Assembly to perform its core mandate within the Municipality.
The Municipality is endowed with a lot of tourist attractions. It could be described as “a mine of tourist attractions”. Notable among the attractions is the existence of many waterfalls most especially the Akaa falls located at Akyeremanteng and the Asenema falls at Asenema.
However, little attention was paid to the industry in the past years in terms of its development and promotion which would have boosted the economy by way of job creation and revenue generation
The Municipal Assembly in their own little way has tried to develop and promote industry but that has not materialized much because the sector needs a lot of financial support or investment for its physical infrastructure development and promotion. The Municipal Assembly is therefore willing and ready to enter into Public-Private Partnerships with investors interested in the sector so that more jobs can be created for the people especially the youths as well as more revenue generation for other developments.
Table 1.6: Below presents the tourist sites within the Akuapem Municipality.
|S/n||Name Of Tourist Attraction||Location|
|1||· Akaa Waterfall||Akyeremateng|
|2||· Asenema Waterfall||Asenema|
|· Nsuta waterfall||Nsuta|
|4||· Amenapa waterfall||Akropong|
|5||· Obosomase Waterfall||Obosomase|
||Towns on the Ridge in the Municipality|
The Municipality is endowed with vast land. The land area of the Municipality is 450 square kilometers representing about two point three percent (2.3%) of the entire land mass of the Eastern Region. The land supports agricultural, quarrying and sand winning activities which are sources of income to households especially the rural households. Though the Municipality has a vast land, the lands are mostly undulating in nature. Thus, being characterized by hills and valleys.
The census report show that about 55% of the entire Municipal population is in the ages of 15-64 years is the working class age. This is an important asset to drive the development of the economy of the Municipality. This class of people can be grouped under skilled and unskilled labour. The table below provide the occupation of the economically active population, both skilled and unskilled in the Municipality.
|Table 1.7: Employed population 15 years and older by occupation and sex|
|Technicians and associate professionals||1,061||2.0||749||3.1||312||1.1|
|Clerical support workers||620||1.2||391||1.6||229||0.8|
|Service and sales workers||11,588||22.1||1,975||8.2||9,613||33.8|
|Skilled agricultural forestry and fishery workers||19,427||37.0||10,840||45.1||8,587||30.2|
|Craft and related trades workers||9,354||17.8||4,264||17.7||5,090||17.9|
|Plant and machine operators and assemblers||2,200||4.2||2,115||8.8||85||0.3|
Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 2010 Population and Housing Census
Due to the strategic location of the Municipality, there exist all forms of economic linkages between it and other settlements especially in the adjoining Districts. However, the strongest is with Accra and Koforidua. The proximity of the Municipality to the Accra Metropolis and Koforidua Municipality is a key fact that justifies the high level of interaction between Akuapem North and these urban centers which embodies all forms of trade or economic transactions. There also exists intra-trade between the urban and rural communities within the Municipality as majority of foods stuffs are produced in these rural areas.
Economic activity status refers to the population who are economically active, unemployed and economically inactive. The table below shows the economic activity status of the population age 15years and older in the Municipality. The economically active population is 66.1% out of which 91.9% are employed and 8.1% are unemployed. The economically inactive population is 33.9%. The table below present data on economic activity status;
The Akupem North Area as an urbanizing area intends to provide an ideal or enabling environment for small and medium scale enterprises or businesses to maximize opportunities for economic growth. Thus, measures would be put in place to attract and retain businesses to boost the economic base of the Municipality. This would further help to create more businesses or induce their growth from small to medium or large scale enterprises as well generate employment opportunities to minimize the high incidence of unemployment. In addition, this would increase the competitiveness of these businesses. Furthermore, local resources in terms of human capacity, logistics and finance would be harnessed mainly from the Municipality to undertake this. All these would help transform the local economy from a more informal one into a formal economy. The Municipal Assembly’s IGF would also be enhanced within the plan period as result of this. Some Departments of the Assembly have therefore proposed a number of critical activities for implementation within the plan period to help propel the economic fortunes of the Municipality. These departments include NBSSI/BAC, Municipal Department of Agriculture, Department of Social Welfare and Community Development, Central Administration etc. For details of specific planned activities refer to the Annual Action Plans. The activities include but not limited to capacity building for identified organized groups in basic marketing, records keeping and management practices, etc.
The Municipality’s road system can be classified into three categories namely the first, second and third class roads. The first class road originates from Aburi through Mamfe to Koforidua. These are the main roads that link the Municipality to the regional and national capitals. The second class roads connect and provide accessibility among the major settlements in the Municipality. The rest of the road network could be classified as third class and are mainly feeder roads which link villages to each other and to the main commercial and administrative towns.
The general conditions of roads especially feeder roads are poor. Most of the feeder roads have deteriorated. During rainy seasons, surface accessibility becomes very poor hence restricting the movement of people and farm produce especially to the market centers
All the urban areas within the Municipality have market centres but are very small in nature with no lorry stations attached which operates basically every day. The Municipal Assembly has two major vibrant markets at Adawso and Asenema. These markets are periodic markets which have bi-weekly market days. Adawso market operates on every Tuesdays and Fridays while Asenema market operates every Wednesdays and Saturdays.
There is the need to rehabilitate and further expand these two major markets since they create places of convenience to buy and sell, which offers employment opportunities for both skilled and unskilled labour.
Facilities for postal and telecommunications are limited in the Municipality. The Municipality has post offices at Akropong, Abiriw, Larteh, Adukrom, Okoroase, Adawso, Mampong and Dawu which is under construction links the Municipality to other parts of the country. There are also telecommunication networks facilities such as MTN, Airtel, Vodafone, Tigo and Expresso providing communication and mobile money transfer services to people in the Municipality.
A number of financial institutions such as banks and micro-finance companies operate and offer financial services to people within the Municipality. Notable among them is the Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB) located at Akropong and Mampong; and Akuapem Rural Bank located at Mamfe.
The category of customers of the financial institutions ranges from salary workers, farmers, industrialists, transport owners, traders, artisans, and corporate institutions.
Some of the financial services provided by these institutions are Current Account, Savings, Deposits, Domestic and foreign money Transfers, loans and mortgages. The locations of these notable financial institutions are however skewed towards the urban centres thereby making accessibility to the rural areas very low and hence low savings rate.